Business Taxes

How To Calculate Business Taxes?

Business Development 6 Mins Read
published on: 14 July 2023 last updated on: 29 December 2023

If you’re a business owner, you understand how critical business taxes are to your operation.

Knowing how to calculate your business taxes can help you save costly errors, make some money on returns, and prevent trouble with the authorities. This calculation not only ensures that you stay in compliance with tax laws but also affects your company’s profitability.

Companies risk penalties when business owners don’t understand the nuances of business taxes, which could lead to significant financial losses. Hence, it’s paramount to get it right.

The first step begins with understanding your company’s legal structure as it forms the foundation for correct tax calculation. Your business structure can be a sole proprietorship, partnership, limited liability company (LLC), S Corporation, or C Corporation. Each structure comes with its own set of tax implications.

Sole proprietorships and partnerships typically report income and expenses through personal income tax returns, while corporations must file separate tax returns. Similarly, LLCs can elect to be taxed as either corporations or partnerships.

Income Tax Rates Of Small Business Entities

Here are different types of small business structures and their tax rates–

1. Pass-Through Entities  

The cornerstone of small business tax rates lies in the organizational structures. This section delves into the critical role of government acknowledgment as a pass-through entity. Pass-through entities witness taxes deducted from the business owner’s individual income tax returns, a practice distinct from entities managing income taxes internally.

2. C Corporations

This segment focuses on C Corporations, where tax rates hinge on business income and corporate tax rates. Additionally, shareholders receiving dividends bear the responsibility of paying taxes upon filing personal tax returns.

3. S Corporations

Examining the unique requirements for S Corporations, this section highlights their status as pass-through entities. Income flows directly to shareholders, who, in turn, pay taxes individually based on personal tax rates, which may range from 10% to 37%.

4. Sole Proprietorships

Exploring the most prevalent and modest business entities, this section covers Sole Proprietorships. These entities adhere to common tax brackets, spanning from 10% to 37%. Self-employed individuals, a common facet of sole proprietorships, navigate self-employment taxes and annual estimated tax payments, fulfilling obligations quarterly.

5. Partnerships

Drawing parallels with S Corporations, partnerships are considered tax entities. Partners contribute taxes based on the total business income, subjecting general partners to both business ownership responsibilities and self-employment taxes.

6. Limited Liability Companies (LLCs)

This section unravels the tax landscape for LLCs, emphasizing their tax structure based on government filing. Single-member LLCs align with sole proprietorships in tax obligations, while multi-member LLCs adhere to partnership tax norms. Throughout these structures, paying Income Tax based on total income remains an imperative.

Understanding the intricate tax implications associated with different business structures is paramount for small businesses and self-employed individuals. Whether navigating the pass-through nature of an S Corporation, shouldering individual responsibilities as a sole proprietor, or engaging in partnership dynamics within LLCs, each structure brings forth unique considerations. Regular fulfillment of tax obligations, typically on a quarterly basis, is foundational for financial health and compliance across diverse organizational forms.

Understanding And Calculating Estimated Taxes

Calculating Estimated Taxes

Estimated taxes are prepayments of your income tax liability, including self-employment tax and alternative minimum tax. They’re necessary because the US tax system operates on a pay-as-you-go basis, and you’re expected to pay tax as you earn or receive income during the year. Staying abreast with recent tax provisions like the IRS updates on Employee Retention Tax Credit is crucial, as they can significantly influence your tax liabilities and returns.

Calculating the estimated taxes requires estimating your desired deductions, adjusted gross income, credits, and taxable income for the year. You can then use IRS “Form 1040-ES”, which provides a worksheet for calculating the total amount of the estimated tax payments. Generally, you should pay 90% of your current tax liability or a full  100% of the previous year’s tax liability, depending on which is smaller, to mitigate the risks of penalties.

In response to the COVID-19 pandemic, the IRS introduced the Employee Retention Tax Credit (ERTC) to help businesses keep employees on their payroll. It’s a refundable tax credit against certain employment taxes. This credit can significantly reduce your business tax liability if you’re eligible.

The rules and limits of the ERTC have been updated several times since its introduction, so it’s crucial to stay updated with the latest IRS guidance. These updates can affect your eligibility, the credit amount you can claim, and how it interacts with other relief provisions.

Other Types Of Business Taxes

Besides federal income taxes, your business may also owe other types of taxes. State, as well as local taxes, are a significant part of this, as your business may be subject to taxes in every state where it operates. You may also owe self-employment tax if you’re a sole proprietor or partner and payroll taxes if you have employees.

Calculating these taxes can be complex as it involves understanding various tax rates and laws, which can differ across states and municipalities. For example, self-employment tax is a flat rate of 15.3% on your net business income, while payroll tax rates can vary based on factors like the employee’s income and your state’s unemployment tax rate.

What Is The Difference Between Personal And Business Taxes?

For individuals, the IRS uses a progressive tax system where the tax rate increases as income rises. It means individuals are divided into tax brackets based on their income, and each bracket is associated with a different tax rate.

For businesses, especially corporations, the calculation is a bit different. Unlike personal taxes, corporate income tax is assessed at a flat rate.

Employment Taxes For Small Businesses

Employment Taxes For Small Businesses

If you run a small business with employees, employment taxes are your responsibility, which are social security and Medicare taxes, collectively known as FICA taxes. These taxes are shared between employers and employees.

Calculating these taxes involves understanding the current social security and Medicare tax rates. For example, the Social Security tax rate is 6.2% for the employer and 6.2% for the employee, and the Medicare tax rate is 1.45% for each. So, if you have an employee earning $50,000 annually, your social security tax would be $3,100 (6.2% of $50,000), and your Medicare tax would be $725 (1.45% of $50,000).

Crunching The Numbers For Federal Income Tax

To calculate your federal income tax, you’ll need to determine your taxable income. This involves subtracting any allowable tax deductions and credits from your gross income.

Many businesses are eligible for deductions such as business expenses, depreciation, and cost of goods sold, which can substantially reduce your taxable income. Tax credits can also lower your tax bill by reducing your tax liability dollar-for-dollar. Understanding these deductions and credits is key to lowering your overall tax burden.

Local And State Taxes

Along with the federal taxes, your business will likely also owe local as well as state taxes. These taxes vary widely by jurisdiction and can include income, sales, and property taxes.

Calculating these taxes involves understanding and applying your state’s tax rates to your taxable income or sales. Some states offer online resources to help you calculate your tax liability, or you can work with a tax expert familiar with your state’s tax laws.

Payroll Tax

Payroll Tax

Payroll tax is a critical responsibility for employers. It includes withholding federal income tax and FICA taxes from employee wages and paying the employer portion of FICA taxes and federal unemployment tax.

To calculate payroll tax, you must know your employees’ wages, current tax rates, and applicable wage limits. For example, as of 2021, social security tax only applied to the first $142,800 of an employee’s wages. You must then deposit these taxes with the IRS, typically monthly or semi-weekly.


Calculating business taxes isn’t necessarily a walk in the park, but it’s certainly not an insurmountable mountain. It requires understanding your business structure, knowing the different types of taxes, and keeping up-to-date with tax law updates. 

While this guide offers a comprehensive look at the topic, every business is unique and may have additional factors to consider. Therefore, we highly recommend consulting with a tax professional who can offer personalized advice.

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business expenses business structure run a small business

Arnab is a professional blogger, having an enormous interest in writing blogs and other jones of calligraphies. In terms of his professional commitments, He carries out sharing sentient blogs.

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